What is cytogenetics?

The cytogenetic analysis, also called “chromosomal map”, is the study of chromosomes. They have inside DNA, which is a molecule containing all the necessary informations for the development and the functioning of the human body.

What is the purpose of the cytogenetic analysis?

The cytogenetic analysis is needed in order to verify the presence or not of alterations of the number of chromosomes which can cause physical, psychomotor or linguistic diseases.

How is the cytogenic analysis carried out?

The chromosomal study is carried out both in antenatal and postnatal period.

  • During the antenatal period the analysis of karyotype is carried out on the cells of the amniotic liquid or on those of chorionic villi. The analysis allows to know undoubtedly whether the baby is affected by alterations of chromosomal patrimony.
  • In the postnatal period instead karyotype analysis is generally performed on peripheral blood lymphocytes. This allows to recognize chromosomal abnormalities that are associated with a pathological condition, a reduced fertility and a higher probability of generating children with chromosomal disorder .

How is the cytogenetic exam conduced?

The exam consists in the views of singular chromosomes through the acquisition of photographic images that are memorized and analysed on the computer. This analysis of images allows to underline possible chromosomal anomalies both numerical (trisomy and monosomy) and structural, such as translocations, deletions, duplications and inversions.
• During the postnatal period, the analysis of karyotype is generally conducted on the lymphocytes of the peripheral blood. It allows to know chromosomal anomalies that can be associated to a pathological condition and to a reduction of fertility or to a major probability to have children affected by the chromosomal pathology.

Galli offers some solutions for these cytogenetic investigations; from the GTESTBOX model, which consents the manipulation of temperature and relative controlled humidity, GFISH models for the fluorescence in situ hybridization, to the oven of the GIBRY hybridization that allows the introduction of Rotissery for the maximisation of the mix of proofs under strict control of the temperature.

Furthermore, the cytogenetic traditional methods are gradually going to be replaced for the aCGH method, in fact the arrays of DNA are a standard instrument to value duplications and deletions of a person’s DNA.

If you use moulds of aCGH DNA, Galli offers the most suitable products for the application.
Both for low and middle density arrays and for BAC moulds or oligonucleotide arrays , we have the perfect Scanner in order to read the diapositive.

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